Madrid, It Is Really Incredible!
--January 2008: Issue 26 of City Reading Ⅰ

  It is recommended studying into cities in Shandong Province following up three clues.
  If studying ancient cities in Shandong Province, you must follow up cultural and historical clue for most of cities in Shandong Province were the capital of ancient states. For instance, Linzi was the capital of State of Qi, Qufu was the capital of State of Lu and Linyi was the capital of ancient Langya County. We can analyze historical contributory causes of these cities by following up cultural and historical clue.
  If studying into contemporary cities in Shandong Province, it is vital to follow up transport clue for contemporary urban development in Shandong Province worked out two transport routes. with Jining, Linqing, Dongchang (Today’s Liaocheng) and Dezhou on the banks of the Grand Canal sitting on the first route and Jinan, Zhou Village, Boshan and Weixian County bordering east-west road at the northern foot of western and Central Shandong hilly area lieying on the second route. These cities were distributed along the two routes and formed a T-shaped city chain by and large. 

  If studying into modern cities in Shandong Province, we must follow up urban development clue and especially economic growth clue in Shandong Province for Shandong takes the lead in economic growth in north China and a good number of economic-growth-oriented cities such as coastal open-up city Qingdao, typical resource industry city Dongying and Yanzhou and typical port cities such as Yantai and Rizhao are emerging at this time.

  In these three clues, it is hard to find a city which covered itself in glory in three periods as some cities might fall into decline rapidly and be of less importance losing strength in historical changes. For instance, Linqing was flourishing in the heyday of the canal. As a ferry terminal, Linqing was a well-known large industrial and commercial city and served as a transport hub. With the function obsolesce of the canal, Linqing had suffered decline. 

  Among these cities, Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province, is the sole city which covered itself in glory in three periods and will create prospect in the future.
  Jinan City was so named in the Han Dynasty for the first time. For it was located to the south of ancient Jishui River and Emperor Hanwen divided Jinan State, it was so called Jinan at that time. Jinan has a long history and it is recorded that there was Lixia City dating back to the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. Therefore, Jinan City is among one of the earliest ancient city relics in Shandong Province and only ancient Linzi City and ancient Jimo City bear comparison with ancient Jinan City. In comparison with ancient Jinan City, contemporary Jinan City played a more important role. In 1904, Jiaozhou-Jinan Railway was opened to traffic. In 1906, Jinan city opened portas a commercial city. In 1912, Jinpu Road was opened to traffic. As a result, Jinan has become a transport hub in contemporary Shandong Province and the industry there has boomed since the Republic of China. It can be drawn a conclusion that both ancient Jinan and contemporary Jinan served as a political and military center and it is its industry and commerce development supported by transport instead of political and military power that contributed to the development of contemporary Jinan City. Owing to solid foundation laid during contemporary Jinan City period, modern Jinan City still serves as an important economic center in Shandong Province. There are numerous listed companies in Jinan City and these listed companies lay solid foundation for the economic growth in Jinan City by virtue of their valuable education resources and cultural resources.

  This is Jinan City which has a long history, flourished in the contemporary era and win glory in modern times. Jinan City is a city typical of cities in Shandong Province and a well-known city in the past, in modern times and in the future. Thus, it exemplifies cities in Shandong Province best.